What about two-one-sided t-tests equivalence testing? One can easily set up the usual null hypothesis as the alternative hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis as the null hypothesis. In effect one can end up accepting a statistical hypothesis with a certain "confidence" interval.
My understanding was that this is the rationale for testing the equivalency of generic drugs with brand drugs. I have a simple example with references on pages of some notes I wrote: here.
I don't want to click through each directory and download the files one by one who would? But wget results in all kinds of irrelevant html files getting included. Please provide a zip file of the examples directory. I still intend to read the book because I paid for it ;- , but I have to read it passively, without running the novel parts of the code. The arm package cannot be installed except on Windows, because of its dependencies. It is non-trivial to run even chapter 3 code in a non-windows environment Mac OS I unpacked the arm package in CRAN and extracted the functions "manually".
I still cannot get sim to work. I think you should prominently display the fact that the book's code is essentially impossible to run on non-Windows machines. I think I would have thought twice about buying the book if I knew this. For the moment I think you should have a more improverished version of arm as a package so that non-windows people can use it too. This should at least have the dataset and the non-BUGS based functions. As it stands the book is code is pretty difficult to use. How much of your intended audience do you lose by restricting the code to Windows?
I know this restriction derives from BUGS and not your work, but still. My guess would be that you've lost a large audience. Consider an lmer model like the following where sentence reading time RT is modeled by two orthogonal constrasts c1 and c2 in a repeated measures design; say there are three conditions a,b,c in the experiment that each subject subject saw hence within subjects , and that each subject saw multiple sentences items that have the manipulation of interest the three conditions :.
Now, say I fit another model m2 where I drop the random intercept for item because it has very low variance:. Does it not make sense to remove the random intercept term for item even though it would make sense to keep it because we do expect different sentences to have different contributions to reading time due to all kinds of other factors orthogonal to the manipulation in the experiment such as plausibility in the real world etc.
This kind of model comparison is discussed in detail in the Pinheiro and Bates book; so I am a bit unclear on how to apply the principle above in the light of such discussions in the literature. The authors mention AIC and BIC in the book, but the connection between dropping factors as a consequence of model comparison is not discussed, as far as I can tell.
Sociologists may want to find out which of the multiple social indicators best predict whether or not a new immigrant group will adapt and be absorbed into society. If you do want to use it, I'd suggest using mcsamp which is our front end that runs multiple chains and converts to a Bugs object for easy display. Petersburg, Russia, August , Also, it is not clear where the above principle comes from; it would be more interesting to understand WHY the authors proposed this principle. In addition, a list containing the fold indices themselves will also be returned.
Also, it is not clear where the above principle comes from; it would be more interesting to understand WHY the authors proposed this principle. Perhaps it's in the book and I haven't found it yet. Yes, here I was thinking about classical hypothesis tests such as t-tests, F-tests, etc. The general approach of the book is estimation, not hypothesis testing. Here we were talking about these quick hypothesis tests that can be useful in applied statistics.
I am about halfway through the book and think it is great. Not only have I learned a ton of useful techniques, but also I have a much better understanding of how to interpret models and results. I'm looking forward to digging into the "good stuff" in the second half. Regarding point 3 from your most-recent comment, I suspect that you could address all of Vasishth's concerns about downloading files by providing a single Zip archive that contains all of the examples. Not only have I learned a ton of useful techniques, but also I have a much better understanding of how to interpret models and results.
I'm looking forward to digging into the "good stuff" in the second half. Regarding point 3 from your most-recent comment, I suspect that you could address all of Vasishth's concerns about downloading files by providing a single Zip archive that contains all of the examples.
His root problem was not being able to conveniently download all of the examples for offline study. Wget, BTW, is a program that can be used to recursively download hierarchies of files. It is often employed to download "everything" in a directory when a convenient all-the-files-in-one-big-bundle archive is not provided.
Thanks for the detailed responses. It's a pretty amazing book.
In my opinion, the R code is an integral component; those using other software will be missing out not least because of the developments in the lme4 and related packages. In point 1, you say: "The general approach of the book is estimation, not hypothesis testing. When we do hypothesis tests, we want to know whether, say, the difference between two conditions is significant. But the p-value depends on a confidence interval estimate; and the p value in essence comes from there.
Here is a real life example that I am working on right now. I have data from a reaction time study where the p-value for a particular experimental condition coded with indicator variables is 0. Now the question is: how do I interpret this effect? The effect is in the "predicted direction" and if I were to follow the conventional approach used in experimental research in my area psycholinguistics , I would declare victory and move on. But the MCMC-based estimates do not really support the conclusion that there is an effect.
It seems to me that estimation and hypothesis testing cannot really be separated. I think I see the point that the point of a particular research exercise can be to only find out what the coefficients are, along with their intervals, i.
But even there, if the intervals include 0, we would conclude that that predictor does not have have a significant effect on the dependent variable. We are essentially doing a hypothesis test. In some settings for example, coefficients in a linear model , estimation and hyp testing are simply dual problems, but in other settings, they are different. For example, consider inference for a variance parameter such as "tau," the sd of the school effects in the 8-schools example of chapter 5 of Bayesian Data Analysis.
We know that the true value of tau is positive, and we can summarize, for example, by an HPD interval.
These are different problems. In practice it will depend on how large "0. I don't know that I trust the mcmcsamp function. I just don't know exactly what it's doing. If you do want to use it, I'd suggest using mcsamp which is our front end that runs multiple chains and converts to a Bugs object for easy display. I finally installed Windows on my Mac a traumatic experience and finally got the code working. However, the startup instructions on the website of the book did not work for me. I offer a working example for other souls as clueless as myself.
The first problem is that the libraries have to be installed manually, they do not install automatically as adverstised. The decode command for the license does not work as advertised, but the license installs anyway. Bill Jefferys says:. The focus of the course is on understanding and application, rather than detailed mathematical derivations.
It is also standard with the or later Mac version of Excel. However, it is not standard with earlier versions of Excel for Mac.
We will build a regression model and estimate it using Excel. We will use the estimated model to infer relationships between various variables and use the model to make predictions. The module also introduces the notion of errors, residuals and R-square in a regression model. These tests are an important part of inference and the module introduces them using Excel based examples.
The p-values are introduced along with goodness of fit measures R-square and the adjusted R-square. You get to understand the interpretation of Regression output in the presence of categorical variables. Examples are worked out to re-inforce various concepts introduced. The module also explains what is Multicollinearity and how to deal with it. We also study the transformation of variables in a regression and in that context introduce the log-log and the semi-log regression models. I have found Course 3 and 4 of this specialization to be challenging, but rewarding.
It has helped me build confidence that I can do just about anything with data provided to increase positive impact. I learned a lot. I gain confidence in analyzing data in Excel. I am happy that I have successfully completed it with simple understanding given on each topic. It was great help. Thank you very much. Visite o Central de Ajuda ao Aprendiz.
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